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Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research Volume 17 ,Issue 1 ,2022-10-20
The levels of TGFβ1, VEGF, PDGF-BB, and PF4 in platelet-rich plasma of professional soccer players: a cross-sectional pilot study
Tomoharu Mochizuki 1 Takashi Ushiki 2 , 3 , 4 Satoshi Watanabe 5 Go Omori 6 Tomoyuki Kawase 7
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Received 2022-9-26, accepted for publication 2022-10-20, Published 2022-10-20

BackgroundRegenerative therapy using platelet-rich plasma (PRP), a rich source of growth factors, has become popular in orthopedic sports medicine. Elite athletes prefer PRP therapy for their injured muscles and tendons primarily to avoid the possible risks of surgical treatment. However, the clinical effectiveness of PRP therapy in elite athletes compared to that in non-athletes remains unknown. Therefore, to investigate the effectiveness of PRP therapy in professional athletes (pro-athletes), we focused on the quality of PRP preparations and compared the levels of bioactive molecules between pro-athletes and non-athletes. MethodsPRP was prepared from healthy, non-smoking male professional soccer players (pro-athletes) (n = 22) and non-athletes (VEGF: n = 34, others: n = 38). The levels of TGFβ1, PDGF-BB, VEGF, and PF4 were determined using ELISA kits. Polyphosphate was probed with 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and monitored using a fluorometer. The body composition of the donors was determined using a bathroom weighing scale.ResultsThe levels of TGFβ1 and VEGF were significantly lower in pro-athletes than in non-athletes, whereas PF4 levels were significantly higher in pro-athletes. No significant difference was found in PDGF-BB levels between these groups. Biomolecule levels were not correlated with polyphosphate levels.ConclusionTGFβ1, VEGF, and PDGF-BB levels in pro-athletes were not higher than those in non-athletes. These findings suggest that growth factor levels in PRP may not be a predominant determinant of the clinical effectiveness of PRP therapy in pro-athletes. Increased PF4 levels in pro-athletes suggest an immunological function of PRP that may positively influence tissue regeneration.


Polyphosphate;Growth factors;Athlete;Platelet-rich plasma


© The Author(s) 2022
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Tomoyuki Kawase.Division of Oral Bioengineering, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan.kawase@dent.niigata-u.ac.jp


Tomoharu Mochizuki,Takashi Ushiki,Satoshi Watanabe,Go Omori,Tomoyuki Kawase. The levels of TGFβ1, VEGF, PDGF-BB, and PF4 in platelet-rich plasma of professional soccer players: a cross-sectional pilot study. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research ,Vol.17, Issue 1(2022)



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