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Depression Research and Treatment Volume 2020 ,2020-01-31
Depressive Symptoms among Haramaya University Students in Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Research Article
Mitiku Teshome Hambisa 1 Andualem Derese 1 Tilahun Abdeta 2
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DOI:10.1155/2020/5027918
Received 2019-06-18, accepted for publication 2020-01-18, Published 2020-01-31
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摘要

Background. The prevalence of mental health problems including depression is increasing in severity and number among higher institution students, and it has a lot of negative consequences like poor academic performance and committing suicide. Identifying the prevalence and associated factors of mental illness among higher institution students is important in order to administer appropriate preventions and interventions. In Ethiopia, only a few studies tried to report associated factors of depression among university students. Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with depressive symptoms among Haramaya University students, Ethiopia. Methods. Institution-based, cross-sectional study design was conducted among 1040 students. A standard, self-administered questionnaire was used to get data from a sample of randomly selected 1040 undergraduate university students using a multistage systematic random sampling technique. The questionnaire used was the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scale which is a self-report 21-item scale that is used to assess the presence of depressive symptoms. All 21 items are rated on a three-point scale (0 to 3). Each question is scored on a 0 to 3 scale, and total scores range from 0 to 63, with higher scores reflecting greater levels of depressive symptoms. The questionnaire has been well validated as a measure of depressive symptomatology with scores 1-13 indicating minimal depressive symptoms, 14-19 showing mild depressive symptoms, 20-28 showing moderate depressive symptoms, and 29-63 indicating severe depressive symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables independently associated with depressive symptoms after we dichotomized the depressive symptoms screening tool to “yes/no” depressive symptoms. This means students who did not report any depressive symptoms were given “no” depressive symptoms and who reported at least one (≥1) depressive symptoms were given “yes” (depressive symptoms). Results. A total of 1022 (98.3%) out of 1040 students participated in this study. The mean age of participants was 20.9 years (SD±2.17), and the majority of them (76.0%) were male students. Prevalence of depressive symptoms among undergraduate students was 26.8% (95% CI: 24.84, 28.76). Among those who had reported depressive symptoms: 10%, 12%, 4%, and 1% of students reported minimal, mild, moderate, and severe depressive symptoms, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis in the final model revealed that being a first-year student (AOR 6.99, 95% CI: 2.31, 21.15, p value < 0.001), being a second-year student (AOR 6.25, 95% CI: 2.05, 19.07, p value < 0.001), and being a third-year student (AOR 3.85, 95% CI: 1.26, 11.78, p value < 0.018) and being divorced/widowed (AOR 5.91, 95% CI: 1.31, 26.72, p value < 0.021), current drinking alcohol (AOR 2.53, 95% CI: 1.72,3.72, p value < 0.001), current smoking cigarettes (AOR 1.71, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.86, p value < 0.042), and current use of illicit substances (AOR 2.20, 95% CI: 1.26, 3.85, p value < 0.006) were independently associated with depressive symptoms. Having no religion and currently chewing Khat were statistically significantly associated with depressive symptoms in the binary logistic regression analysis but not in the final model. Conclusions. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among university students in this study is high relative to the general population. Sociodemographic factors year of study and current substance use were identified as associated factors of depressive symptoms. Recommendations. This finding suggests the need for the provision of mental health services at the university, including screening, counseling, and effective treatment. Families need to closely follow their students’ health status by having good communication with the universities, and they have to play their great role in preventing depression and providing appropriate treatment as needed. The governments and policy-makers should stand with universities by supporting and establishing matured policies which helps universities to have mental health service centers. Generally, the university and other stakeholders should consider these identified associated factors for prevention and control of mental health problems of university students.

授权许可

Copyright © 2020 Mitiku Teshome Hambisa et al. 2020
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

通讯作者

Tilahun Abdeta.Haramaya University, College of Health and Medical Sciences, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Department of Psychiatry, Harar, Ethiopia, haramaya.edu.et.tilahunabdeta@gmail.com

推荐引用方式

Mitiku Teshome Hambisa,Andualem Derese,Tilahun Abdeta. Depressive Symptoms among Haramaya University Students in Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study. Depression Research and Treatment ,Vol.2020(2020)

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