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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity Volume 2019 ,2019-07-22
Alpha-2-Macroglobulin, a Hypochlorite-Regulated Chaperone and Immune System Modulator
Review Article
Jordan H. Cater 1 Mark R. Wilson 1 Amy R. Wyatt 1 , 2 , 3
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DOI:10.1155/2019/5410657
Received 2019-04-05, accepted for publication 2019-06-02, Published 2019-06-02
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摘要

Alpha-macroglobulins are ancient proteins that include monomeric, dimeric, and tetrameric family members. In humans, and many other mammals, the predominant alpha-macroglobulin is alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M), a tetrameric protein that is constitutively abundant in biological fluids (e.g., blood plasma, cerebral spinal fluid, synovial fluid, ocular fluid, and interstitial fluid). α2M is best known for its remarkable ability to inhibit a broad spectrum of proteases, but the full gamut of its activities affects diverse biological processes. For example, α2M can stabilise and facilitate the clearance of the Alzheimer’s disease-associated amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide. Additionally, α2M can influence the signalling of cytokines and growth factors including neurotrophins. The results of several studies support the idea that the functions of α2M are uniquely regulated by hypochlorite, an oxidant that is generated during inflammation, which induces the native α2M tetramer to dissociate into dimers. This review will discuss the evidence for hypochlorite-induced regulation of α2M and the possible implications of this in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.

授权许可

Copyright © 2019 Jordan H. Cater et al. 2019
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

通讯作者

Amy R. Wyatt.Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute and School of Chemistry and Molecular Bioscience, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia, uow.edu.au;College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, South Australia 4052, Australia, flinders.edu.au;Centre for Neuroscience, Flinders University, South Australia 4052, Australia, flinders.edu.au.amy.wyatt@flinders.edu.au

推荐引用方式

Jordan H. Cater,Mark R. Wilson,Amy R. Wyatt. Alpha-2-Macroglobulin, a Hypochlorite-Regulated Chaperone and Immune System Modulator. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity ,Vol.2019(2019)

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