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BioMed Research International Volume 2018 ,2018-12-03
Chlorogenic Acid Functions as a Novel Agonist of PPARγ2 during the Differentiation of Mouse 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes
Research Article
Shu-guang Peng 1 , 2 , 3 Yi-lin Pang 1 Qi Zhu 1 Jing-he Kang 4 Ming-xin Liu 1 Zheng Wang 1
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DOI:10.1155/2018/8594767
Received 2018-09-12, accepted for publication 2018-11-19, Published 2018-11-19
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摘要

Rosiglitazone (RG) is a well-known activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and used to treat hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes; however, its clinical application has been confounded by adverse side effects. Here, we assessed the roles of chlorogenic acid (CGA), a phenolic secondary metabolite found in many fruits and vegetables, on the differentiation and lipolysis of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The results showed that CGA promoted differentiation in vitro according to oil red O staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. As a potential molecular mechanism, CGA downregulated mRNA levels of the adipocyte differentiation-inhibitor gene Pref1 and upregulated those of major adipogenic transcriptional factors (Cebpb and Srebp1). Additionally, CGA upregulated the expression of the differentiation-related transcriptional factor PPARγ2 at both the mRNA and protein levels. However, following CGA intervention, the accumulation of intracellular triacylglycerides following preadipocyte differentiation was significantly lower than that in the RG group. Consistent with this, our data indicated that CGA treatment significantly upregulated the expression of lipogenic pathway-related genes Plin and Srebp1 during the differentiation stage, although the influence of CGA was weaker than that of RG. Notably, CGA upregulated the expression of the lipolysis-related gene Hsl, whereas it did not increase the expression of the lipid synthesis-related gene Dgat1. These results demonstrated that CGA might function as a potential PPARγ agonist similar to RG; however, the impact of CGA on lipolysis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes differed from that of RG.

授权许可

Copyright © 2018 Shu-guang Peng et al. 2018
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

图表

Chlorogenic acid (CGA) suppresses cell proliferation of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with control, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 μM CGA for 24, 48, and 72 h at 37°C, respectively. Experiments were performed in triplicate. Data are shown as the means ± SD (n = 3). ∗∗P < 0.01.

Comparative effect of chlorogenic acid (CGA) and rosiglitazone (RG) on the differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. (A) 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were cultured with or without CGA (20 μM) for 10 days; then cells were stained with ORO. RG was used as a positive control. GW9662 was used as a negative control group (GG). All images are shown at 200 × magnification. (a) Control group (CG); (b) RG group; (c) GG group; (d) CGA group; the arrows in a-d indicate the differentiation of preadipocytes; (B-C) effects of CGA on the expression of lipogenic pathway-related genes during the differentiation process of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. (B) Plin; (C) Srebp1. Data are shown as the means ± SD (n = 3). ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01, ∗∗∗P < 0.001.

Chlorogenic acid (CGA) reduced triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells compared with the rosiglitazone group (RG). (a) Mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were cultured without (control group, CG) or with CGA (20 μM) for 10 days; then the cellular TAG contents were measured using a TAG determination kit. (b-c) Effects of CGA on expression of the lipolysis-related gene Hsl (b) and triacylglycerol synthesis-related gene Dgat1 (c) during the differentiation process of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. RG was used as a positive control. GW9662 was used as a negative control (GG). CG, control group. Data are shown as the means ± SD (n = 3). ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01, ∗∗∗P < 0.001.

Chlorogenic acid (CGA) reduced triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells compared with the rosiglitazone group (RG). (a) Mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were cultured without (control group, CG) or with CGA (20 μM) for 10 days; then the cellular TAG contents were measured using a TAG determination kit. (b-c) Effects of CGA on expression of the lipolysis-related gene Hsl (b) and triacylglycerol synthesis-related gene Dgat1 (c) during the differentiation process of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. RG was used as a positive control. GW9662 was used as a negative control (GG). CG, control group. Data are shown as the means ± SD (n = 3). ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01, ∗∗∗P < 0.001.

Chlorogenic acid (CGA) reduced triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells compared with the rosiglitazone group (RG). (a) Mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were cultured without (control group, CG) or with CGA (20 μM) for 10 days; then the cellular TAG contents were measured using a TAG determination kit. (b-c) Effects of CGA on expression of the lipolysis-related gene Hsl (b) and triacylglycerol synthesis-related gene Dgat1 (c) during the differentiation process of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. RG was used as a positive control. GW9662 was used as a negative control (GG). CG, control group. Data are shown as the means ± SD (n = 3). ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01, ∗∗∗P < 0.001.

Effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on the expression of key differentiation-related genes during the differentiation process of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Rosiglitazone group (RG) was used as a positive control. GW9662 was used as a negative control (GG). CG, control group. (a) Pref1; (b) Cebpb; (c) Pparg2; (d) Rxra. Data are shown as the means ± SD (n = 3). ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01.

Effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on the expression of key differentiation-related genes during the differentiation process of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Rosiglitazone group (RG) was used as a positive control. GW9662 was used as a negative control (GG). CG, control group. (a) Pref1; (b) Cebpb; (c) Pparg2; (d) Rxra. Data are shown as the means ± SD (n = 3). ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01.

Effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on the expression of key differentiation-related genes during the differentiation process of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Rosiglitazone group (RG) was used as a positive control. GW9662 was used as a negative control (GG). CG, control group. (a) Pref1; (b) Cebpb; (c) Pparg2; (d) Rxra. Data are shown as the means ± SD (n = 3). ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01.

Effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on the expression of key differentiation-related genes during the differentiation process of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Rosiglitazone group (RG) was used as a positive control. GW9662 was used as a negative control (GG). CG, control group. (a) Pref1; (b) Cebpb; (c) Pparg2; (d) Rxra. Data are shown as the means ± SD (n = 3). ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01.

Chlorogenic acid (CGA) activates PPARγ2 during the differentiation process of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. (a) Mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with control (control group; CG), rosiglitazone (RG), GW9662 (GG), and CGA for 2, 4, 6, and 8 days, respectively. The samples were lysed and subjected to western blot analysis with indicated antibodies. Left: total cell lysate; Right: nucleus fraction. (b) The intensity of the band was quantified using densitometric imaging. Data are shown as the means ± SD (n = 3). ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01.

Chlorogenic acid (CGA) activates PPARγ2 during the differentiation process of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. (a) Mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with control (control group; CG), rosiglitazone (RG), GW9662 (GG), and CGA for 2, 4, 6, and 8 days, respectively. The samples were lysed and subjected to western blot analysis with indicated antibodies. Left: total cell lysate; Right: nucleus fraction. (b) The intensity of the band was quantified using densitometric imaging. Data are shown as the means ± SD (n = 3). ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01.

Chlorogenic acid (CGA) enhances the expression of PPARγ2 during the differentiation process of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were immunostained for PPARγ2 protein (green) (A), while nuclei were simultaneously revealed by DAPI staining (blue) (B). Colocalization is rendered in the merge panels (cyan) (C). Subcellular distribution of PPARγ2 and nuclei was analyzed by microscopic confocal analysis. (a) 0 days (630 ×); (b) 2 days (630 ×); (d) 8 days (630 ×). ((c) and (e)) The intensity of the green and blue fluorescence was quantified using ZEN 2 lite software. Data are shown as the means ± SD (n = 3). ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01, ∗∗∗P < 0.001.

通讯作者

Zheng Wang.College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hunan Agricultural University, 410128 Changsha, China, hunau.edu.cn.zhengw@hunau.edu.cn

推荐引用方式

Shu-guang Peng,Yi-lin Pang,Qi Zhu,Jing-he Kang,Ming-xin Liu,Zheng Wang. Chlorogenic Acid Functions as a Novel Agonist of PPARγ2 during the Differentiation of Mouse 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes. BioMed Research International ,Vol.2018(2018)

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