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Advances in Meteorology Volume 2018 ,2018-11-13
Impacts of Water Consumption in the Haihe Plain on the Climate of the Taihang Mountains, North China
Research Article
Jing Zou 1 Chesheng Zhan 2 Ruxin Zhao 3 Peihua Qin 4 Tong Hu 1 Feiyu Wang 5
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DOI:10.1155/2018/6280737
Received 2018-08-02, accepted for publication 2018-10-29, Published 2018-10-29
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摘要

In this study, the RegCM4 regional climate model was employed to investigate the impacts of water consumption in the Haihe Plain on the local climate in the nearby Taihang Mountains. Four simulation tests of twelve years’ duration were conducted with various schemes of water consumption by residents, industries, and agriculture. The results indicate that water exploitation and consumption in the Haihe Plain causes wetting and cooling of the local land surface and rapid increases in the depth of the groundwater table. These wetting and cooling effects increase atmospheric moisture, which is transported to surrounding areas, including the Taihang Mountains to the west. In a simulation where water consumption in the Haihe Plain was doubled, the wetting and cooling effects in the Taihang Mountains were enhanced but at less than double the amount, because a cooler land surface does not enhance atmospheric convective activities. The impacts of water consumption activities in the Haihe Plain were more obvious during the irrigation seasons (primarily spring and summer). In addition, the land surface variables in the Taihang Mountains, e.g., sensible and latent heat fluxes, were less sensitive to the climatic impacts due to the water consumption activities in the Haihe Plain because they were strongly affected by local surface energy balance.

授权许可

Copyright © 2018 Jing Zou et al. 2018
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

图表

Topography of the simulation domain. The Taihang Mountains and Haihe Plain are outlined in black.

Framework of the water exploitation and consumption scheme.

Spatial distributions of estimated water demand per unit area in 2000 over (a) all of China, (b) the Taihang Mountains, and (c) Haihe Plain.

Spatial distributions of estimated water demand per unit area in 2000 over (a) all of China, (b) the Taihang Mountains, and (c) Haihe Plain.

Spatial distributions of estimated water demand per unit area in 2000 over (a) all of China, (b) the Taihang Mountains, and (c) Haihe Plain.

Spatial distributions of mean (a) observed precipitation, (b) precipitation simulated by the control test, (c) observed 2 m air temperature, and (d) 2 m air temperature simulated by the control test.

Spatial distributions of mean (a) observed precipitation, (b) precipitation simulated by the control test, (c) observed 2 m air temperature, and (d) 2 m air temperature simulated by the control test.

Spatial distributions of mean (a) observed precipitation, (b) precipitation simulated by the control test, (c) observed 2 m air temperature, and (d) 2 m air temperature simulated by the control test.

Spatial distributions of mean (a) observed precipitation, (b) precipitation simulated by the control test, (c) observed 2 m air temperature, and (d) 2 m air temperature simulated by the control test.

Spatial distributions of groundwater depth difference between tests (a) T1−CTL, (b) T2−CTL, and (c) T3−CTL. Mean soil moisture difference at 10 cm depth for (d) T1−CTL, (e) T2−CTL, and (f) T3−CTL. Mean precipitation difference for (g) T1−CTL, (h) T2−CTL, and (i) T3−CTL.

Spatial distributions of groundwater depth difference between tests (a) T1−CTL, (b) T2−CTL, and (c) T3−CTL. Mean soil moisture difference at 10 cm depth for (d) T1−CTL, (e) T2−CTL, and (f) T3−CTL. Mean precipitation difference for (g) T1−CTL, (h) T2−CTL, and (i) T3−CTL.

Spatial distributions of groundwater depth difference between tests (a) T1−CTL, (b) T2−CTL, and (c) T3−CTL. Mean soil moisture difference at 10 cm depth for (d) T1−CTL, (e) T2−CTL, and (f) T3−CTL. Mean precipitation difference for (g) T1−CTL, (h) T2−CTL, and (i) T3−CTL.

Spatial distributions of groundwater depth difference between tests (a) T1−CTL, (b) T2−CTL, and (c) T3−CTL. Mean soil moisture difference at 10 cm depth for (d) T1−CTL, (e) T2−CTL, and (f) T3−CTL. Mean precipitation difference for (g) T1−CTL, (h) T2−CTL, and (i) T3−CTL.

Spatial distributions of groundwater depth difference between tests (a) T1−CTL, (b) T2−CTL, and (c) T3−CTL. Mean soil moisture difference at 10 cm depth for (d) T1−CTL, (e) T2−CTL, and (f) T3−CTL. Mean precipitation difference for (g) T1−CTL, (h) T2−CTL, and (i) T3−CTL.

Spatial distributions of groundwater depth difference between tests (a) T1−CTL, (b) T2−CTL, and (c) T3−CTL. Mean soil moisture difference at 10 cm depth for (d) T1−CTL, (e) T2−CTL, and (f) T3−CTL. Mean precipitation difference for (g) T1−CTL, (h) T2−CTL, and (i) T3−CTL.

Spatial distributions of groundwater depth difference between tests (a) T1−CTL, (b) T2−CTL, and (c) T3−CTL. Mean soil moisture difference at 10 cm depth for (d) T1−CTL, (e) T2−CTL, and (f) T3−CTL. Mean precipitation difference for (g) T1−CTL, (h) T2−CTL, and (i) T3−CTL.

Spatial distributions of groundwater depth difference between tests (a) T1−CTL, (b) T2−CTL, and (c) T3−CTL. Mean soil moisture difference at 10 cm depth for (d) T1−CTL, (e) T2−CTL, and (f) T3−CTL. Mean precipitation difference for (g) T1−CTL, (h) T2−CTL, and (i) T3−CTL.

Spatial distributions of groundwater depth difference between tests (a) T1−CTL, (b) T2−CTL, and (c) T3−CTL. Mean soil moisture difference at 10 cm depth for (d) T1−CTL, (e) T2−CTL, and (f) T3−CTL. Mean precipitation difference for (g) T1−CTL, (h) T2−CTL, and (i) T3−CTL.

Spatial distributions of mean 2 m air temperature difference between tests (a) T1−CTL, (b) T2−CTL, and (c) T3−CTL. Sensible heat flux difference for (d) T1−CTL, (e) T2−CTL, and (f) T3−CTL. Latent heat flux difference for (g) T1−CTL, (h) T2−CTL, and (i) T3−CTL.

Spatial distributions of mean 2 m air temperature difference between tests (a) T1−CTL, (b) T2−CTL, and (c) T3−CTL. Sensible heat flux difference for (d) T1−CTL, (e) T2−CTL, and (f) T3−CTL. Latent heat flux difference for (g) T1−CTL, (h) T2−CTL, and (i) T3−CTL.

Spatial distributions of mean 2 m air temperature difference between tests (a) T1−CTL, (b) T2−CTL, and (c) T3−CTL. Sensible heat flux difference for (d) T1−CTL, (e) T2−CTL, and (f) T3−CTL. Latent heat flux difference for (g) T1−CTL, (h) T2−CTL, and (i) T3−CTL.

Spatial distributions of mean 2 m air temperature difference between tests (a) T1−CTL, (b) T2−CTL, and (c) T3−CTL. Sensible heat flux difference for (d) T1−CTL, (e) T2−CTL, and (f) T3−CTL. Latent heat flux difference for (g) T1−CTL, (h) T2−CTL, and (i) T3−CTL.

Spatial distributions of mean 2 m air temperature difference between tests (a) T1−CTL, (b) T2−CTL, and (c) T3−CTL. Sensible heat flux difference for (d) T1−CTL, (e) T2−CTL, and (f) T3−CTL. Latent heat flux difference for (g) T1−CTL, (h) T2−CTL, and (i) T3−CTL.

Spatial distributions of mean 2 m air temperature difference between tests (a) T1−CTL, (b) T2−CTL, and (c) T3−CTL. Sensible heat flux difference for (d) T1−CTL, (e) T2−CTL, and (f) T3−CTL. Latent heat flux difference for (g) T1−CTL, (h) T2−CTL, and (i) T3−CTL.

Spatial distributions of mean 2 m air temperature difference between tests (a) T1−CTL, (b) T2−CTL, and (c) T3−CTL. Sensible heat flux difference for (d) T1−CTL, (e) T2−CTL, and (f) T3−CTL. Latent heat flux difference for (g) T1−CTL, (h) T2−CTL, and (i) T3−CTL.

Spatial distributions of mean 2 m air temperature difference between tests (a) T1−CTL, (b) T2−CTL, and (c) T3−CTL. Sensible heat flux difference for (d) T1−CTL, (e) T2−CTL, and (f) T3−CTL. Latent heat flux difference for (g) T1−CTL, (h) T2−CTL, and (i) T3−CTL.

Spatial distributions of mean 2 m air temperature difference between tests (a) T1−CTL, (b) T2−CTL, and (c) T3−CTL. Sensible heat flux difference for (d) T1−CTL, (e) T2−CTL, and (f) T3−CTL. Latent heat flux difference for (g) T1−CTL, (h) T2−CTL, and (i) T3−CTL.

Mean profiles of (a) soil moisture difference and (b) soil temperature difference in the Taihang Mountains.

Mean profiles of (a) soil moisture difference and (b) soil temperature difference in the Taihang Mountains.

The distributions of longitude vs pressure for mean air humidity difference (a) T1−CTL, (b) T2−CTL, (c) T3−CTL; and air temperature difference (d) T1−CTL, (e) T2−CTL, (f) T3−CTL averaged between 35°N and 40°N.

The distributions of longitude vs pressure for mean air humidity difference (a) T1−CTL, (b) T2−CTL, (c) T3−CTL; and air temperature difference (d) T1−CTL, (e) T2−CTL, (f) T3−CTL averaged between 35°N and 40°N.

The distributions of longitude vs pressure for mean air humidity difference (a) T1−CTL, (b) T2−CTL, (c) T3−CTL; and air temperature difference (d) T1−CTL, (e) T2−CTL, (f) T3−CTL averaged between 35°N and 40°N.

The distributions of longitude vs pressure for mean air humidity difference (a) T1−CTL, (b) T2−CTL, (c) T3−CTL; and air temperature difference (d) T1−CTL, (e) T2−CTL, (f) T3−CTL averaged between 35°N and 40°N.

The distributions of longitude vs pressure for mean air humidity difference (a) T1−CTL, (b) T2−CTL, (c) T3−CTL; and air temperature difference (d) T1−CTL, (e) T2−CTL, (f) T3−CTL averaged between 35°N and 40°N.

The distributions of longitude vs pressure for mean air humidity difference (a) T1−CTL, (b) T2−CTL, (c) T3−CTL; and air temperature difference (d) T1−CTL, (e) T2−CTL, (f) T3−CTL averaged between 35°N and 40°N.

Annual series of (a) groundwater depth differences, (b) soil moisture differences at 10 cm depth, (c) precipitation differences, (d) 2 m air temperature differences, (e) sensible heat flux differences, (f) latent heat flux differences in the Taihang Mountains.

Annual series of (a) groundwater depth differences, (b) soil moisture differences at 10 cm depth, (c) precipitation differences, (d) 2 m air temperature differences, (e) sensible heat flux differences, (f) latent heat flux differences in the Taihang Mountains.

Annual series of (a) groundwater depth differences, (b) soil moisture differences at 10 cm depth, (c) precipitation differences, (d) 2 m air temperature differences, (e) sensible heat flux differences, (f) latent heat flux differences in the Taihang Mountains.

Annual series of (a) groundwater depth differences, (b) soil moisture differences at 10 cm depth, (c) precipitation differences, (d) 2 m air temperature differences, (e) sensible heat flux differences, (f) latent heat flux differences in the Taihang Mountains.

Annual series of (a) groundwater depth differences, (b) soil moisture differences at 10 cm depth, (c) precipitation differences, (d) 2 m air temperature differences, (e) sensible heat flux differences, (f) latent heat flux differences in the Taihang Mountains.

Annual series of (a) groundwater depth differences, (b) soil moisture differences at 10 cm depth, (c) precipitation differences, (d) 2 m air temperature differences, (e) sensible heat flux differences, (f) latent heat flux differences in the Taihang Mountains.

Mean monthly (a) soil moisture differences at 10 cm depth, (b) precipitation differences, (c) 2 m air temperature differences, (d) sensible heat flux differences, and (e) latent heat flux differences in the Taihang Mountains.

Mean monthly (a) soil moisture differences at 10 cm depth, (b) precipitation differences, (c) 2 m air temperature differences, (d) sensible heat flux differences, and (e) latent heat flux differences in the Taihang Mountains.

Mean monthly (a) soil moisture differences at 10 cm depth, (b) precipitation differences, (c) 2 m air temperature differences, (d) sensible heat flux differences, and (e) latent heat flux differences in the Taihang Mountains.

Mean monthly (a) soil moisture differences at 10 cm depth, (b) precipitation differences, (c) 2 m air temperature differences, (d) sensible heat flux differences, and (e) latent heat flux differences in the Taihang Mountains.

Mean monthly (a) soil moisture differences at 10 cm depth, (b) precipitation differences, (c) 2 m air temperature differences, (d) sensible heat flux differences, and (e) latent heat flux differences in the Taihang Mountains.

通讯作者

Chesheng Zhan.Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China, cas.cn.zhancs@igsnrr.ac.cn

推荐引用方式

Jing Zou,Chesheng Zhan,Ruxin Zhao,Peihua Qin,Tong Hu,Feiyu Wang. Impacts of Water Consumption in the Haihe Plain on the Climate of the Taihang Mountains, North China. Advances in Meteorology ,Vol.2018(2018)

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