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Journal of Chemistry Volume 2018 ,2018-03-19
Chemical Characteristics of Precipitation in a Typical Urban Site of the Hinterland in Three Gorges Reservoir, China
Research Article
Liuyi Zhang 1 , 2 , 3 Baoqing Qiao 1 , 2 Huanbo Wang 1 Mi Tian 1 Jian Cui 1 , 3 Chuan Fu 3 Yimin Huang 3 Fumo Yang 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
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DOI:10.1155/2018/2914313
Received 2017-10-26, accepted for publication 2018-02-18, Published 2018-02-18
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摘要

Major water-soluble ions were analyzed for two-year precipitation samples in Wanzhou, a typical urban site of the hinterland of Chinese Three Gorges Reservoir. The pH values of the precipitation were in the range of 4.0 to 8.3, and the volume-weighted mean (VWM) value was 5.0. The concentration order of anions and cations was as follows: SO42->NO3->Cl->F- and NH4+>Ca2+>Na+>K+>Mg2+, respectively. Good correlations were found between SO42- and NH4+, SO42- and Ca2+, NO3- and NH4+, and NO3- and Ca2+, implying their co-occurrence in the precipitation, most likely as (NH4)2SO4, (NH4)HSO4, NH4NO3, CaSO4, and Ca(NO3)2. The sum of all measured ions was 416.4 μeq L−1, indicating serious air pollution in Wanzhou. NH4+ and Ca2+ were the most important ions neutralizing the acidic compounds in the precipitation; their major sources included agricultural activity and crustal dust. Local anthropogenic activities, for example, coal burning and traffic related sources, contributed most of SO42- and NO3-. The equivalent concentration ratio of SO42-/NO3- was 4.5, indicating that excessive emission of sulfur was the main reason leading to the precipitation acidity in Wanzhou. However, this ratio was lower than the ratio (5.9) in 2000s in Wanzhou, indicating that the contribution of nitric acid to the acidity of precipitation was strengthening.

授权许可

Copyright © 2018 Liuyi Zhang et al. 2018
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

图表

The sampling site in Wanzhou.

The sampling site in Wanzhou.

(a) Monthly precipitation amount, VWM pH, and (b) pH frequency distribution of the precipitation in Wanzhou.

(a) Monthly precipitation amount, VWM pH, and (b) pH frequency distribution of the precipitation in Wanzhou.

(a) Statistics of ions’ concentration and (b) percentages of ions’ VWM concentration (μeq L−1) in the precipitation in Wanzhou. The box plots indicate the minimum, 10th and 25th percentiles, median, 75th and 90th percentiles, maximum, and average (square) of each ion.

(a) Statistics of ions’ concentration and (b) percentages of ions’ VWM concentration (μeq L−1) in the precipitation in Wanzhou. The box plots indicate the minimum, 10th and 25th percentiles, median, 75th and 90th percentiles, maximum, and average (square) of each ion.

Seasonal variations of the two-year average EC, pH, and precipitation amount in Wanzhou.

(a) Monthly variations and (b) seasonal variations in the VWM concentration of ions in the precipitation in Wanzhou.

(a) Monthly variations and (b) seasonal variations in the VWM concentration of ions in the precipitation in Wanzhou.

Cluster analysis (a) and potential source areas for SO42- (b), NH4+, (c) and NO3- (d) in Wanzhou.

Cluster analysis (a) and potential source areas for SO42- (b), NH4+, (c) and NO3- (d) in Wanzhou.

Cluster analysis (a) and potential source areas for SO42- (b), NH4+, (c) and NO3- (d) in Wanzhou.

Cluster analysis (a) and potential source areas for SO42- (b), NH4+, (c) and NO3- (d) in Wanzhou.

通讯作者

Fumo Yang.CAS Key Laboratory of Reservoir Environment, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714, China, cas.cn;University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China, ucas.ac.cn;Key Laboratory of Water Environment Evolution and Pollution Control in Three Gorges Reservoir, Chongqing Three Gorges University, Wanzhou 404100, China, sanxiau.edu.cn;CAS Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China, cas.cn.fmyang@cigit.ac.cn

推荐引用方式

Liuyi Zhang,Baoqing Qiao,Huanbo Wang,Mi Tian,Jian Cui,Chuan Fu,Yimin Huang,Fumo Yang. Chemical Characteristics of Precipitation in a Typical Urban Site of the Hinterland in Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Journal of Chemistry ,Vol.2018(2018)

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