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Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications Volume 2016 ,2016-09-21
Chemical Species, Micromorphology, and XRD Fingerprint Analysis of Tibetan Medicine Zuotai Containing Mercury
Research Article
Cen Li 1 , 2 Hongxia Yang 1 , 2 Yuzhi Du 1 , 2 Yuancan Xiao 1 , 2 Zhang Wang 3 Duojie Ladan 4 Hongtao Bi 1 , 2 Lixin Wei 1 , 2
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DOI:10.1155/2016/7010519
Received 2016-03-20, accepted for publication 2016-07-04, Published 2016-07-04
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摘要

Zuotai (gTso thal) is one of the famous drugs containing mercury in Tibetan medicine. However, little is known about the chemical substance basis of its pharmacodynamics and the intrinsic link of different samples sources so far. Given this, energy dispersive spectrometry of X-ray (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to assay the elements, micromorphology, and phase composition of nine Zuotai samples from different regions, respectively; the XRD fingerprint features of Zuotai were analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis. EDX result shows that Zuotai contains Hg, S, O, Fe, Al, Cu, and other elements. SEM and AFM observations suggest that Zuotai is a kind of ancient nanodrug. Its particles are mainly in the range of 100–800 nm, which commonly further aggregate into 1–30 μm loosely amorphous particles. XRD test shows that β-HgS, S8, and α-HgS are its main phase compositions. XRD fingerprint analysis indicates that the similarity degrees of nine samples are very high, and the results of multivariate statistical analysis are broadly consistent with sample sources. The present research has revealed the physicochemical characteristics of Zuotai, and it would play a positive role in interpreting this mysterious Tibetan drug.

授权许可

Copyright © 2016 Cen Li et al. 2016
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

图表

Micron size morphologies of nine Zuotai samples by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Note: #1 is the sample of Aba Prefecture Tibetan Medicine Hospital; #2 is the sample of Gan’na Prefecture Tibetan Medicine Hospital; #3, #4, and #5 are the samples of the Company of Tibetan Medicine of Tibetan Traditional Medical College; #6, #7, and #8 are the samples of Qinghai Province Tibetan Medicine Hospital; #9 is the sample of the Company of Tibetan Medicine of Tibetan Autonomous Region.

Nanometer size morphologies of nine Zuotai samples by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Note: #1 is the sample of Aba Prefecture Tibetan Medicine Hospital; #2 is the sample of Gan’na Prefecture Tibetan Medicine Hospital; #3, #4, and #5 are the samples of the Company of Tibetan Medicine of Tibetan Traditional Medical College; #6, #7, and #8 are the samples of Qinghai Province Tibetan Medicine Hospital; #9 is the sample of the Company of Tibetan Medicine of Tibetan Autonomous Region.

Powder XRD spectrum of nine Zuotai samples. Note: #1 is the sample of Aba Prefecture Tibetan Medicine Hospital; #2 is the sample of Gan’na Prefecture Tibetan Medicine Hospital; #3, #4, and #5 are the samples of the Company of Tibetan Medicine of Tibetan Traditional Medical College; #6, #7, and #8 are the samples of Qinghai Province Tibetan Medicine Hospital; #9 is the sample of the Company of Tibetan Medicine of Tibetan Autonomous Region.

Structures of phase compositions in Zuotai samples. Note: (a), (b), and (c) are the crystal structures of β-HgS, α-HgS, and S 8 , respectively.

Structures of phase compositions in Zuotai samples. Note: (a), (b), and (c) are the crystal structures of β-HgS, α-HgS, and S 8 , respectively.

Structures of phase compositions in Zuotai samples. Note: (a), (b), and (c) are the crystal structures of β-HgS, α-HgS, and S 8 , respectively.

XRD fingerprint of Zuotai (average).

XRD fingerprint of Zuotai (median).

The cluster analysis result of nine Zuotai samples. Note: #1 is the sample of Aba Prefecture Tibetan Medicine Hospital; #2 is the sample of Gan’na Prefecture Tibetan Medicine Hospital; #3, #4, and #5 are the samples of the Company of Tibetan Medicine of Tibetan Traditional Medical College; #6, #7, and #8 are the samples of Qinghai Province Tibetan Medicine Hospital; #9 is the sample of the Company of Tibetan Medicine of Tibetan Autonomous Region.

The PCA result of XRD fingerprint of nine Zuotai samples. Note: #1 is the sample of Aba Prefecture Tibetan Medicine Hospital; #2 is the sample of Gan’na Prefecture Tibetan Medicine Hospital; #3, #4, and #5 are the samples of the Company of Tibetan Medicine of Tibetan Traditional Medical College; #6, #7, and #8 are the samples of Qinghai Province Tibetan Medicine Hospital; #9 is the sample of the Company of Tibetan Medicine of Tibetan Autonomous Region.

通讯作者

Lixin Wei.Pharmacology and Safety Evaluation Key Laboratory of Tibetan Medicine in Qinghai Province, Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining, Qinghai 810008, China, cas.cn;Key Laboratory of Tibetan Medicine Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining, Qinghai 810008, China, cas.cn.lxwei@nwipb.cas.cn

推荐引用方式

Cen Li,Hongxia Yang,Yuzhi Du,Yuancan Xiao,Zhang Wang,Duojie Ladan,Hongtao Bi,Lixin Wei. Chemical Species, Micromorphology, and XRD Fingerprint Analysis of Tibetan Medicine Zuotai Containing Mercury. Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications ,Vol.2016(2016)

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